 • The stream lines are so spaced that rate of flow Q is same between each successive pair of lines. From the derivations and two inferences can be drawn for a flownet with elementary square fields. Before commencing the calculation, the available published flow nets must be studied and duly analyzed so as to get a rough idea of the nature of the flow net. From the drawn flow net, Nf and Nd can be easily counted, and hence, the seepage discharge can be easily computed by using Eqn.

There are several other adaptations of lesser importance. The most important addition to the plotter was the installation of a 4,000-ohm variable resistor at each end of the positive and negative leads. By varying the resistors from zero to 4,000 ohms, a value on the Duodial can be matched to a given value on the plot, such as the drawdown reading in an observation well. By placing a certain reading on the Duodial, the correct value may be obtained on the plot. An example would be the determination of the equipotential line that is analogous to the ground-water contour between two known observation-well readings. The power unit consists of a transformer, a selenium rectifier, an off-on toggle switch, overload fuses, and a tell-tale red light. The transformer and rectifier are the same as those found in most automobile battery chargers. Single or multiple well data may be plotted if it is remembered that the greatest error develops near the well. The model depicts a two-dimensional surface, whereas the actual well involves three dimensions. It follows that error in the plot increases with drawdown. In other words, the more the well develops a three-dimensional aspect, the greater will be the error in the two-dimensional plot. Figure 4—Vertical section showing error in plot caused by failure to account for drawdown in well. Dashed lines are extensions of equipotential and equipressure points.

## Seepage Model Or Heleshaw Apparatus

The resistance in the paper is sufficiently uniform so that it may be considered analogous to a homogeneous aquifer. Manufacturing tolerance is plus or minus 8 percent along the length of the roll and plus or minus 3 percent along the width of the roll. These tolerances are within the realm of accuracy achievable for ground-water plots. Variations can be detected readily if the probe indentations are close enough, and irregularities can be overcome by drawing a smooth curve through the points. There is no satisfactory method yet known to vary the resistance in a portion of the paper by any controlled amount. Either the black or the silver side of the paper may be used for plotting.

Theory of flownets provides a remarkable solution to the problem. First of all, smooth curves representing the flow lines that meet the specified requirements are first marked. Among the various methods of flow net construction, the most convenient method is the Graphical method. Phreatic line is a seepage line as the line within a dam section below which there are positive hydrostatic pressures in the dam. The hydrostatic pressure on the phreatic line itself is atmospheric. Other sides of the squares are set equal to the widths as determined above. Irregularities are smoothed out, and the next flow line DF is drawn joining these bases.

Figure 2.7 shows a typical flow net representing seepage through a soil beneath a dam. The flow is assumed to be two dimensional, a condition that covers a large number of seepage problems encountered in practice. Figure 9—Areal plot of well field showing lines of equal drawdown, in feet. The analogy between the flow of fluids and electric current does exist, and if the limitations of the analogy are recognized, the plotter can serve some useful purposes.

On a ten-turn helical-wound resistance element, the arm (“slider”) moves the complete length of the helix on a ten-turn screw. Position of the arm is indicated on a double dial (trade name “Duodial”), which has 100 units on an inner dial and 10 units on an outer dial. In this manner the voltage is divided into 1,000 separate readable units. The three posts on the back of the power and voltage divider unit are leads from the voltage divider. Draw flow lines such that the flow is equally divided between adjacent lines. Then, the equipotential lines are drawn such that they cut or intersect the flow lines at right angles. It must be ensured that the equipotential lines are drawn such that the fields form approximate curvilinear squares. This method requires a lot of erasing to get the proper shape of a flow net and also consume a lots of time. A graphical consists of drawing steamlines and equipotential lines such that they cut orthogonally and form curvilinear squares.

## What Is Flow Net And Its Uses?

That the flow lines and equipotentials are orthogonal. Darcy’s retained earnings balance sheet law describes the flow of water through the flow net.

• In order to draw the flow net, it is first essential to find the location and shape of the phreatic line or the top flow line separating the saturated and unsaturated zones.
• Either flow lines or equipotential lines are smoothly drawn curves.
• The graphical method is the method in which the flow net is constructed by an intensive trial and error procedure.
• This line separates a saturated soil mass from an unsaturated soil mass.
• On a ten-turn helical-wound resistance element, the arm (“slider”) moves the complete length of the helix on a ten-turn screw.

Equation 9 is the Laplace equation and must be satisfied by all steady-state flow problems. Slichter was the first writer to recognize that the Laplace equation holds for fluid flow. Another satisfactory method for solving flow problems is the resistor grid, which comprises a simple electrical system composed of numerous resistors arranged in a grid. Each resistor is adjusted and the voltage drop is measured across each resistor until the grid voltage matches the hydrologic data.

## Damnasht 3 2

Figure 2—Schematic wiring diagram of analog field plotter circuit using a battery power source. The conducting-paper type of analog plotter consists of seven essential units (Pl. 1). Much of the discussion in this section is based on information contained ledger account in the manufacturer’s manual, Use and Theory of the Analog Field Plotter. The equipment was obtained from the Sunshine Scientific Instrument Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A similar device can be constructed from materials available commercially. If the left-band tank is lowered, and the level of water in the right-hand tank is maintained, water will flow downwards through the soil (Fig. 16). After completing part of a flow net it is usually possible to tell whether or not the final diagram will be correct. This line must now be redrawn in its corrected position and the procedure repeated again, amending the first flow line if necessary, until a satisfactory net is obtained. As an example, suppose that it is necessary to draw the flow net for the conditions shown in Fig.

In a matter of moments, the chart is going to be displayed in the main window along with the value of the shape factor and the critical point . With the help of the slider bars aforementioned, you can easily adjust the flow net lines and tune, so that you can be sure you receive the results that interest you.

Interpolate the hydraulic head between wells assuming that the change in head is linear between neighboring wells. Connect points of equal hydraulic head to depict the equipotential lines. Choose equipotential line intervals such that the drop in head between adjacent lines is constant. The equipotential lines represent the height of the water table or potentiometric surface above mean sea level or other datum plane.

Weirs designed and constructed on the basis of Bligh’s theory also failed due to undermining of the subsoil. As a result it was thought essential to study the problem of weirs on the permeable foundations more elaborately.

Groundwater levels rise, and additional water in the soil creates hydrostatic pressure against your home’s foundation. This pressure forces water into your home through the tiniest cracks in your basement’s floor and walls. There is also a pressure in downward direction due to submerged weight of soil. • The stream lines in flow net show the direction of flow and the equinoctial lines join the points the equal velocity potential Φ. • A grid obtained by drawing a series of streamlines ψ and equipotential lines Φ is known as a flow net. Discharge passing through the same flow channel is always the same.

## How To Draw Flownet

The electric current is analogus to the velocity of flow and the homogeneous conductor is analogus to the homogeneous fluid. This method only for a practical method of drawing a flow net for a particular set of boundaries. The field plotter cannot be applied accurately to areal plots of three-dimensional, radial, gravity-flow problems, because electric flow has no analog for a variable third dimension in fluid flow.

When no further drawdown occurs, the cone of depression is considered to be in equilibrium and a steady state of flow exists. One approach to describing fracture flow was developed by Snow . He developed an equation to calculate equivalent hydraulic conductivity for a set of planar fractures. The flow lines and equipotential lines meet at right angles to one another.

## Properties Of Flow Net

The surface of seepage is defined as the surface between the free surface and the actual level of the water in the well. Figure 7 shows the Thiem curve, free surface, surface of seepage, and the water level in a pumping well. Figure 6—Block diagram of an ideal flow net system showing equipressure lines and orthogonal flow lines.

## How To Draw Flow Net Seepage By Hand

Several minor changes were made on the plotter to make it more suitable for ground-water studies. drawing flow nets In summary, Darcy’s law and Ohm’s law were shown to lead to the Laplace equation.

Also, let Δq represent the discharge passing through the flow channel, per unit length of structure . A flow net is a graphical representation of two-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow through aquifers. Note In flow net problems we assume that the permeability of the soil is uniform throughout the soil’s thickness. The conducting-sheet analog field plotter is restricted to problems of a two-dimensional nature. It may be applied to three-dimensional problems only for obtaining approximate solutions.

The fourth device is the conducting-paper analog field plotter, which is similar to the electrolytic tank model except that the electrolyte is replaced by graphite-impregnated paper. It is this type of analog device that is discussed herein. Prior to the turn of the century it was known that electric current conduction is analogous to electrostatics, magnetostatics, and heat conduction . In other words, the phenomena have a common bond in the Laplace equation. S. Slichter , in his classic paper Theoretical Investigation of the Motion of Ground Waters, showed that the flow of fluids is also analogous to the flow of electric current, flow of heat, etc. Since that time various devices have been constructed to employ this analogy.

If the fractured rock is hydraulically equivalent to a porous medium, the above equation may be used. If this condition is not fulfilled, describe the flow in relation to individual fractures. Four or five flow channels are usually sufficient for the first attempts ; the use assets = liabilities + equity of too many flow channels may distract the attention from essential features. Y and of unit thickness perpendicular to the plane of the paper Let Vx and Vy be the entry velocity components in X and Y directions. The FDA formula is easily disrupted by user’s manipulation.